South american people dating from 1100 ad
These have been able to establish a powerful kingdom, and have become a significant naval power, dominating the western Mediterranean. Their control over […]Go to Time Map "The Vandal kingdom in North Africa flourished until 534, when it was overthrown by a small but highly effective Byzantine army under the command of the brilliant general, Belisarius.
North Africa then remained under Byzantine rule until Arab armies swept in from Egypt in the late-7th century.
The city of Tiwanaku emerged as a major ritual-political center in the southeastern Lake Titicaca Basin as early as the Late Formative/Early Intermediate period (100 BC-AD 500), and expanded greatly in extent and monumentality during the later part of the period.
The capital city of Tiwanaku lies in the high river basins of the Tiwanaku and Katari rivers, at altitudes between 3,800 and 4,200 meters (12,500-13,880 feet) above sea level.
Despite its location at such a high altitude, and with frequent frosts and thin soils, perhaps as many as 20,000 people lived in the city at its heyday.
During the Late Formative period, the Tiwanaku Empire was in direct competition with the Huari empire, located in central Peru.
Tiwanaku style artifacts and architecture have been discovered throughout the central Andes, a circumstance that has been attributed to imperial expansion, dispersed colonies, trading networks, a spread of ideas or a combination of all these forces.
This is reflected with research efforts of the Pecos Project and Pecos Conference established by Alfred Kidder. Southwest Traditions The American Southwest is a variable desert/mountain environment that incorporates the lower parts of Utah and Colorado, all of Arizona and New Mexico and the northern deserts of Mexico. As a result CBS agriculture was more successful; but was dependent on irrigation and rain. These deserts have more fertile volcanic soils for agriculture and rivers that run into larger bodies of water (unlike the Great Basin on both counts).The Tiwanaku farmers used this to their advantage, constructing elevated sod platforms or raised fields on which to grow their crops, separated by canals.These raised agricultural field systems stretched the capacity of the high plains to allow for protection of crops through frost and drought periods.